Sunday, May 24, 2009

பசும்பொன் உ முத்துராமலிங்க தேவர் வரலாறு

Pasumpon Muthuramalingam தேவர்

U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, also known as Pasumpon Muthuramalingam Thevar (October 30, 1908 – October 30, 1963) was an Indian politician. He hailed from the Maravar community, the dominant warrior caste group in his home district in southern Tamil Nadu. Thevar became the leader of the All India Forward Bloc in Tamil Nadu, and was national deputy chairman of the party from 1952 onwards. He was elected thrice to Parliament.

Childhood and family life
Thevar was born in the village of Pasumpon, Ramnad district. He hailed from a wealthy landlord family. Thevar was the only son of Ukkirapandi Thevar and Indirani. He had one sister, Janaki.
His mother died before his first birthday and his stepmother the next year. From 1910 onwards he was in the custody of his maternal grandmother Parvathiammal in the neighbouring village of Kallupatti. Parvathiammal was furious on Thevar's father for having taken two new wives shortly after the death of his second wife.
During his youth, Thevar was aided by Kuzhanthaisami Pillai. Pillai was a close family friend of Thevar's father. Pillai took responsibility for arranging Thevar's schooling. First he was given private tuition and in June 1917 he began attending classes at an elementary school run by American missionaries in Kamuthi. Later he joined the Pasumalai High School and then he shifted to the Union Christian High School in Madurai.
Thevar would however, not complete his studies. In 1924 he missed his final examinations due to an outbreak of a plague epidemic. The following year he also missed his chance to attend the final examinations, as he returned to Pasumpon to fight a legal battle over issues of inheritance of family property. The case would linger and was not settled until 1927, when the court ruling in Muthuramalingam Thevar's favour.
Thevar's father, Ukkirapandi Thevar, passed away on June 6, 1939.
Early political activity
Thevar was introduced to political life through the bond built with his lawyer S. Srinivasa Iyengar during the disputes of family inheritance. Iyengar advised Thevar to participate in the annual conference of the Indian National Congress in Madras 1927. During that conference Subhas Chandra Bose lodged as Iyengar's house in Mylapore. Thevar was very impressed by Bose. After the conclusion of the INC session, Thevar followed Bose to Calcutta.
Following his return from Calcutta, Thevar began to study religious spiritualism, Tamil language and classical literature. He was strongly influenced by thinkers such as Swami Vivekananda and Savant Ramlinga Adigal. He began to adopt a simple and strict lifestyle, as well as interacting all castes in the local communities.
As an apprentice of S. Srinivasa Iyengar, Thevar was increasingly involved in the political activities of the Indian National Congress. He was active in the civil disobedience movement called by Gandhi, and acted as a courier between 1932-1934. Moreover he led temperance campaigns in Kallupatti, Mudukulathur and Kodhumazhur. His activities angered the colonial authorities, and he was jailed on several occasions.
Anti-Criminal Tribes Act struggle
One particular issue would have a special impact on Thevar's political career. Since 1920 the Criminal Tribes Act had been enacted by the government of the Madras Presidency and began to be implemented in the Madurai, Ramnad and Tirunelveli districts. After his entry into politics, Thevar began to mobilize resistance to the CTA. He toured villages in the affected areas and led protest rallies for the rights of the individuals registered under the CTA. In 1929 the Maravars of 19 villages in Appanad were forced to registered under the CTA. Thevar led a massive campaign in the villages, urging the people to defy the CTA. The authorities partially withdrew, and reduced the number of CTA registrations in the concerned areas from around 2000 to just 341.
In 1934 Thevar organised a convention at Abhiram, which urged the authorities to repeal the CTA. A committee consisting of Thevar, Dr. P. Varadarajulu Naidu, Perumal Thevar, Sasivarna Thevar and Navaneethakrishna Thevar was appointed by the convention to carry on the efforts to persuade the government to revoke the Act.
The CTA was, however, not revoked. On the contrary, its implementation was widened. Thevar again led agitations and awareness-raising campaigns against the Act. At the time the Justice Party was governing the Madras presidency, and their refusal to revoke the law created a strong animosity on Thevar's behalf towards the Justicites.
1936 District Board election
Infuriated over the attitude of the Justice Party government towards the CTA, Thevar came to the conclusion that the communities affected by the Act had to be mobilized by the Congress. After returning from a trip to Burma in 1936, he began to work to strengthen the Congress in the southern areas of the Presidency. He contested the election to the Ramnad District Board from the Muthukulathur constituency, defeating his Justice Party opponent. This was Thevar's first experience of being a candidate in an election.
After the election Thevar made a bid to be elected the president of the District Board. So did P.S. Kumarasamy, the Raja of Rajapalyam. Conflict erupted within the local Congress organisation over the issue. S. Satyamurthi, on behalf of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee, intervened to preserve the unity of the Congress. Thevar was convinced to withdraw his candidature for president, and presented a motion nominating Kumarasamy as president.
When the Congress Socialist Party began to mobilize in the Madras Presidency in 1936, Thevar joined their ranks.
1937 provincial election
Ahead of the 1937 elections to the assembly of the Madras Presidency, Thevar enlisted youths from the Mukkulathor communities to work for the Congress. His activities created worries for the Justice Party government, which forbade him to travel outside of the Ramnad district and to make speeches in public.
In February 1937 Thevar contested the assembly election himself, as a candidate in the Ramathapuram constituency. He had a powerful opponent, the Raja of Ranmad. However, Thevar won a landslide victory with 11 942 votes against 6 057 for the Raja.
Following the election the Congress formed a government in the Presidency. Thevar had high hopes that the new Congress ministry would revoke the Criminal Tribes Act. But the new prime minister, C. Rajagopalachari, did not fulfil those hopes.
As a trade unionist
During the late 1930s, Thevar got increasingly involved in labour activities. He formed and led the Pasumalai Mahalaskshmi Mill Workers' Union, the Meenakshi Mill Workers' Union and the Madura Knitting Company Labour Union. During a prolonged strike of the Pasumalai Mahalaskshmi Mill Workers' Union, demanding the reinstatement of a section of fired trade unionists, Thevar was jailed for seven months from October 15, 1938. In the end, the management of the Mahalakshmi Mills accepted the demands of the union. In the same period a strike was led by Thevar at the Madura Knitting Company. In 1945, he would become the founding president of the TVS Thozhaili Sangam.
Tripuri session of the Congress and formation of the Forward Bloc
Thevar attended the 52nd annual session of the Indian National Congress, held in Tripuri in March 1939. At this meeting the presidency of Subhas Chandra Bose was challenged by Pattabhi Sitaramayya. Sitaramayya had the active support of Gandhi. Bose was re-elected as the Congress President. Thevar strongly supported Bose in the intra-Congress dispute.
However, due to the manoeuvrings of the Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working Committee, Bose found himself forced to resign from the Congress Presidency. He then launched the Forward Bloc on June 22, calling for the unification of all leftwing elements into a united organisation within the Congress. Thevar, who was disillusioned by the official Congress leadership which had not revoked the CTA, joined the Forward Bloc. When Bose visited Madurai on September 6, Thevar organised a massive rally as his reception.
In jail
The growing popularity in Thevar as a leader of elements opposing the official Congress leadership in Tamil Nadu troubled the Congress-led government. Thevar was also increasingly associated with labour militancy. A criminal case, the so-called Madura Security Case, was proceeded against him. He was banned from leaving Madurai. When travelling to his birthplace, Pasumpon, in September 1940 he was apprehended and jailed for 18 months at the Central Jail in Tiruchirapalli. His capture sparked wide condemnation in Tamil Nadu.
Soon after his release he was again arrest, now under the Defence of India Rules. He was released from prison only on September 5, 1945.
After release from jail
In 1945 C. Rajagopalachari tried to make a comeback within the Congress organisation in Tamil Nadu. He had the support of Gandhi and Sardar Patel, but the majority of in the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee opposed him. A conference was held in Tirupparankundram, in which the leadership should be elected. Chaos broke about during the conference, as warring factions confronted each other. Thevar interrupted the disputes and passed a motion reelecting Kamaraj as the TNCC President.
Elections to the assembly of the Madras Presidency were again held in March 1946. Thevar contested from the Mudukulathur constituency, and was elected unopposed. Soon thereafter, the CTA was repealed.
In February 1948 the Congress expelled all dissenting fractions, including the Forward Bloc. The Forward Bloc became an independent opposition party, and Thevar became its president of its Tamil Nadu state unit (a position he would hold for the rest of his life).
On January 23, 1949, in connection with birthday anniversary celebrations of Subhas Chandra Bose, Thevar publicly announced that Bose was alive and that he had met him. Soon thereafter Thevar disappeared without any explanation. The returned to public life in October 1950. Rumours claimed that he had travelled to Korea and China during this period.
On the national level the Forward Bloc had been suffering from internal ideological divisions. In 1948 two separate Forward Blocs had emerged, a 'Forward Bloc (Marxist)' (out of which the Forward Bloc of today emerged) and a 'Forward Bloc (Ruiker)' (led by R.S. Ruiker). On June 23, 1951, the two parties reunified at a meeting in Calcutta. A central committee was announced for the united party, which included Thevar as one of its members.
1952 general election
In January 1952 the first general elections in independent India were held. The Forward Bloc contested with the aim of forming non-Congress governments at the Centre as well as in the states. Election were held simultaneously to the Lok Sabha as well as to the legislative assemblies of the states. Thevar contested the Aruppukottai constituency in the Lok Sabha election and the Mudukulathur constituency in the assembly election. He won in both cases. After the election, he decided to vacate his Lok Sabha seat and concentrate his efforts to the Madras legislative assembly.
After the election, Congress lacked a majority of its own in the Madras legislative assembly. Thevar cooperated with the communists in trying to form a non-Congress governing coalition. However, the governor intervened and made C. Rajagopalachari of the Congress the Chief Minister.
Split in the Forward Bloc
In 1955, internal divisions reappeared with the Forward Bloc. The Indian National Congress had adopted Socialism as its guiding principle at a session in Madras. Some leaders within the Forward Bloc, like the chairman Mohan Singh and Sheel Bandra Yagee, now argued that the time had come for the Forward Bloc to merge with the Congress. This proposal did however not win much support in other sections of the party leadership. Singh-Yagee unilaterally declared the party merged into the Congress.
An extraordinary central committee meeting was convened in Nagpur May 11-15, 1955. Singh, Yagee and their followers were expelled from the party. Hematha Kumar Bose was elected chairman of the party, Haldulkar the general secretary and Thevar the deputy chairman of the party. Thevar would hold that post until his death.
1957 general election
In December 1955 Thevar travelled to Burma for the second time, during which he took part in political and religious activities organised by the All Burma Tamil Nadu Association. He returned on February 18, 1956 and began to prepare for the coming general election.
A new dynamic in the efforts to build a non-Congress front had emerged in the Madras State(which had been reorganised in 1956). The Congress had been divided and C. Rajagopalachari had formed a new party, the Congress Reform Committee (CRC). Thevar now made peace with his former enemy C. Rajagopalachari, and the Forward Bloc and the CRC worked together to defeat Kamaraj and the Congress rule in the state.
In the election Thevar again contested both the Aruppukottai constituency in the Lok Sabha election and the Mudukulathur constituency in the assembly election. He won both seats, but this time he decided to vacate the assembly seat.
Ramnad riots
A by election was held in the Mudukulathur assembly constituency on July 1, 1957, as Thevar had resigned from his assembly seat. The election was won by D.V. Sasivarna Thevar of the Forward Bloc. The situation in the area was tense on the day that the results were released, and there was a sizeable presence of police forces in place. Clashes between Maravars, who largely supported the Forward Bloc, and pro-Congress Dalits began in a few villages soon after the election result was acknowledged. Gradually the violence spread to more and more villages, and by August the riots had spread throughout the entire district. Several persons were killed and thousands of houses were torched.
Thevar himself travelled to Delhi on July 17 to attend the session of the Lok Sabha. He returned on September 9. On September 10 he took part in a 'Peace Conference' together with D.V. Sasivarna Thevar and Velu (a Dalit legislative assembly member of the Forward Bloc). From the Congress side six Dalits took part. There was also a delegate from the Nadar caste. The conference concluded that the three castes should live in harmony.
Emmanuel, the leader of the Congress Dalits at the Peace Conference was killed the following day. On September 28, a few days after the clashes had ceased, Thevar was arrested by the police under the Preventive Detention Act. Thevar's was apprehended directly after holding a speech at the conference of the Indian National Democratic Congress (the new name taken by the Congress Reform Committee). Thevar was taken to the Madras Central Jail. He was later accused of having masterminded the murder of Emmanuel.
The Forward Bloc and its allies condemned Thevar's arrest as a political vendetta, engineered by the Congress. A 'Thevar Committee' was step up by the INDC. Thevar was acquitted of all charges and released in January 1959.
Final years
After being released from prison Thevar began mobilising for the Madurai municipal elections, held in March 1959. An alliance of the Forward Bloc, Communist Party of India, Indian National Democratic Congress and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was formed. The alliance won the elections, and for the first time Congress lost its hold over the city administration.
Following the election, Thevar health deteriorated and he largely withdrew from public life. He was nominated for the 1962 Lok Sabha election. However he only attended a single campaign meeting, which also was attended by C. Rajagopalachari (who now had merged with his INDC with the Swatantra Party). Thevar was reelected, but due to health reasons he was unable to travel to the parliament in Delhi. U. Muthuralingam Thevar died on October 30, 1963, on his 55th birthday.A bye-election for the Aruppukottai Lok Sabha constituency seat vacated by his death was held in 1964, in which the Forward Bloc was defeated for the first time.
The pillars of Thevar's political thought were spiritualism, nationalism, anti-communism, anti-imperialism and non-Congressism (wanting to created a non-Congress political alternative). Although committed to the construction of a federal socialist India, Thevar rejected Marxism-Leninism as a foreign concept and he opposed the trade policy of the Soviet Union as discriminatory towards countries like India. But first and foremost, his animosity towards the communists was due to the rejection of the Indian communists of Subhas Chandra Bose (who they had called a 'quisling'). His relationship to Marxism was further complicated by his spiritualistic orientation.
As an Indian nationalist, Thevar condemned the Dravidar Kazhagam its successor DMK for simulating separatism. Moreover he distrusted the Atheist element of the Dravidian political discourse.
After his death, the Forward Bloc entered into a period of decline in Tamil Nadu. The party leadership was overtaken by Thevar's disciple P.K. Mookiah Thevar. The party organisation became ridden by splits and disputes. In this situation, the major chunk of the Maradar vote-bank of the Forward Bloc was overtaken by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.
Several official honours have been given to Thevar. In 1968 the Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar College was founded in Usilampatti by the then DMK-led state government. His biography was included in the high school textbooks in Tamil Nadu. In 1971 his cemetery in Pasumpon was converted into an official memorial. A life-size portrait of Thevar was installed in the Tamil Nadu assembly in 1980. In 1984, after the bifurcation of the Ramnad District the 'Pasumpon Muthuralingam District' was created.
U. Muthuralingam Thevar is revered as a hero of the Thevar/Maradar community. Thevar was become an icon in the political life in southern Tamil Nadu. Many political parties seeking the support from that community at the time of elections will make pay their respect to him. But at the same time his legacy is not entirely uncontroversial. At times violence between Thevars and Dalits flare up in the area, and desecrations of monuments of Thevar have taken place.

வீர பாண்டிய கட்டபொம்மன் வரலாறு


Veera pandiya Kattabomman ('Veerapandiyan' means 'brave one in the
pandiyan line') also known as Kattabomman or Katta Bommu hails from Panchalankurichi, a historically important place, in the present day Thoothukudi, a district in Tamil Nadu, India.

In Telugu they called as Kettibommu Naicker from Kambalam inter caste of Nayakkars Veerapandiya Kattabomman was born in an Nayakkar family to Aadi Kattabommu and Aarumugathammal on January 3, 1760 and became the 47th king of Panchalankurichi at an age of 30., a desendent in the Pandya line. Jagaveera pandiyan was issueless and declared Kattabomman as his Veerapandiya Kattabomman's father Aadi Kattabomman was a minister in the court of Jagaveera Pandiyan successor. Since Kattabomman was the first of the new clan, he came to be known as Adi Kattabomman (aadi means first or beginning in Sanskrit and Tamil). History is that Aadi Kattabomman, before becoming a minister at Jagaveera Pandiyan's court, migrated from the present day Andhra Pradesh to Panchalankurichi. His actual name was Bommulu or Bommu. Bommu's physical strength and appearance earned him the name Getti Bommu (strong Bommu) which later, influenced by the local language Tamil, became Katta Bommu (Kattabomman).
Revolt against British rule
Veerapandiya Kattabomman is among the kings in southern India who resisted the
British East India Company. He initially evaded tax that the British demanded and ignored repeated summons to meet collector Jackson. Later his meeting with Jackson ended in a physical combat in which Deputy Commandant of the Company's forces, Clarke, was slain. He later revolted against the British by refusing to pay taxes when a new collector was assigned to retrieve due taxes. This resulted in the British East India Company, under the leadership of Major Bannerman, dispatchng the army to capture Kattabomman. The Company's army circled Kattabomman's fort at Salikulam, a few miles from Panchalanckurichi, intending to arrest him there. This later turned out to be lossful battle for the British with them losing a great fraction of the assigned troops including Lieutenant Collins. Immediately after the retreat of the British forces, Kattabomman vacated his fort suspecting impending cannon attacks from the British which his fort may not have withstood. The East India Company put a price on his head. He was later betrayed by the Raja of Pudukottai which resulted in his arrest and subsequent execution. He was hung from a tamarind tree in 1799 at kayathar. After that his fort was completely demolished by the British and his wealth was looted.
National Hero
The government of Tamil Nadu honored the hero by raising a monumental fort at Panchalankurichi in his memory. His name is remembered among the people as a brave tamil hero who stood against the British long before the first war of Indian independence that would be instigated by Mangal Pandey on 1857.

Veerapandiya Kattabomman 1760 - 1799
"..Collector Jackson singled out Kattabomman Nayak of Panchalamkurichi as the main leader of the rebellion. That came to be known as the First Poligari War was declared on 5 September 1799. Although Kattabomman managed to escape from the field of battle, he was captured a month later in Pudukottai. After a summary trial, he was sentenced to death by Major Bannerman, Commander of the East India Company troops. He was publicly hanged near Kayattar Fort, close to the town of Tirunelveli, in front of fellow poligars who had been summoned to witness the execution..."
The Sanmar Group -
"The struggle for freedom from the British, saw the emergence of many patriots who fought, made sacrifices and even lost their lives defending the country. Exhibiting great courage, Tamils were among those who sowed the seeds for the freedom movement. One such pioneer was Veerapandiya Kattabomman.
Eighteen kilometres north west of Tirunelveli lies the hamlet of Panchalankurichi, a place of historical significance. The chieftains ruling Panchalankurichi put up stiff resistance against the British East India Company, between 1798 and 1801.
Veerapandiya Kattabomman was a fearless chieftain who refused to bow down to the demands of the British for agricultural tax on native land, a brave warrior who laid down his life for his motherland. The fight he launched in Panchalankurichi has been hailed as the inspiration behind the first battle of independence of 1857, which the British called the Sepoy Mutiny.
Azhagiya Veerapandiapuram (Ottapidaram of today) was ruled by Jagaveera Pandiyan. He had a minister Bommu who had migrated from Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu who was a brave warrior. He was known as Gettibommu in Telugu to describe his strength and fighting qualities. This, over a period of time, became Kattabomman in Tamil. Kattabomman ascended the throne after Jagaveera Pandiyan, who had no issue, and later came to be known as Adi Kattabomman, the first of the clan of Kattabomman.
Legend has it that during a hunting trip into the forests of Salikulam (close to Azhagiya Pandiyapuram) Kattabomman watched the spectacle of a hare chasing seven hounds. Kattabomman was amazed at this miracle. Believing that the land possessed great powers that could instil courage in people, he built his fort there and named it Panchalankurichi.
Born in this clan of Adi Kattabomman was Veerapandiyan on January 3, 1760 – the 47th king of Panchalankurichi – to Jagaveera Kattabomman and Arumugathammal. He had two younger brothers Dalavai Kumarasami and Duraisingam. Veerapandiyan was fondly called ‘Karuthaiah’ (the black prince), and Dalavai Kumarasami, ‘Sivathaiah’ (the white prince). Duraisingam, a good orator, earned the sobriquet ‘Oomaidurai’, which actually meant the very opposite – the dumb prince.
On February 2, 1790, Veerapandiyan, thirty, became the king of Panchalankurichi. The Nawab of Arcot who had borrowed huge sums of money from the East India Company gave them the right to collect taxes and levies from the southern region in lieu of the money he had borrowed. The East India Company took advantage of the situation and plundered all the wealth of the people in the name of tax collection. All the ‘poligars’ paid taxes except Veerapandiyan.
Kattabomman refused to pay his dues and for a long time refused to meet Jackson the Collector of the East India Company. Finally, he met Jackson at ‘Ramalinga Vilasam’, the palace of Sethupathi of Ramanathapuram. The meeting ended in a skirmish in which the Deputy Commandant of the Company’s forces, Clarke was slain. Kattabomman and his men fought their way to freedom and safety, but Thanapathi Pillai, Kattabomman’s secretary was taken prisoner.
The Commission of Enquiry that went into the incident fixed the blame on Jackson and relieved him of his post, thinking the Company’s plan to take over the entire country gradually could be marred by Jackson’s fight with Veerapandiya Kattabomman. The new Collector of Tirunelveli wrote to Kattabomman calling him for a meeting on 16th March, 1799. Kattabomman wrote back citing the extreme drought conditions for the delay in the payment of dues and also demanded that all that was robbed off him at Ramanathapuram be restored to him. The Collector wanted the ruling house of Sethupathis to prevent Kattabomman from aligning himself with the enemies of the Company and decided to attack Kattabomman.
Kattabomman refused to meet the Collector and a fight broke out. Under Major Bannerman, the army stood at all the four entrances of Panchalankurichi’s fort. At the southern end, Lieutenant Collins was on the attack. When the fort’s southern doors opened, he was killed by Kattabomman’s warriors.
After suffering heavy losses, the English decided to wait for reinforcements from Palayamkottai. Sensing that his fort could not survive a barrage from heavy cannons, Kattabomman left the fort that night.
A price was set on Kattabomman’s head. Thanapathi Pillai and 16 others were taken prisoners. Thanapathi Pillai was executed and his head perched on a bamboo pole was displayed at Panchalankurichi. Veerapandiya Kattabomman stayed at Kolarpatti at Rajagopala Naicker’s house where the forces surrounded the house.
Kattabomman and his aides fled from there and took refuge in the Thirukalambur forests close to Pudukkottai. Bannerman ordered the ruler of Pudukkottai to arrest Kattabomman. Accordingly, Kattabomman was captured and on October 16, 1799 the case was taken up (nearly three weeks after his arrest near Pudukkottai). After a summary trial, Kattabomman was hanged unceremoniously on a tamarind tree. The fort of Panchalankurichi was razed to the ground and all of Kattabomman’s wealth was looted by the English soldiers.
A fort constructed by the Tamil Nadu Government at Panchalankurichi in 1972 stands as a monument to this great hero from the south who played a pivotal role in the freedom movement of our country. "

Veerapandiya Kattabomman & the Poligar rebellion - N.Rajendran in National Movement in Tamil Nadu, 1905-1914, Agitational Politics and State Coercion
In Tamil Nadu, as in other parts of India, the earliest expressions of opposition to British rule took the form of localised rebellions and uprisings. Chief among these was the revolt of the palayakkarargal (poligars) against the East India Company in 1799.
The poligari system had evolved with the extension of Vijayanagar rule into Tamil Nadu. Each poligar was the holder of a territory or palayam (usually consisting of a few villages), granted to him in return for military service and tribute.
Where circumstances allowed, the poligars naturally tended to place less emphasis on performing their duties and more on enhancing their own powers. Given their numerical strength, extensive resources, local influence and independent attitude, the poligars came to constitute a powerful force in the political system of south India. They regarded themselves as independent, sovereign authorities within their respective palayams, arguing that their lands had been handed down to them across a span of sixty generations Such claims of course were to be brushed aside by the East India Company...
The East India Company, eager for revenue, opposed the manner and scale in which the poligars collected taxes from the people. The issue of taxation—more specifically, who was to collect it, the traditional rulers or the rapacious new collectors from overseas —lay at the root of the subsequent uprising. As one British Collector noted:
I again repeated that. . . unless the poligar were deprived of his power, and my recommendations went to the fullest extent of the measure, the Company's investment would be materially checked, the weavers residing in the Panchalamkurichi palayam would be stripped off their property, and the largest part of the advances made to them by the commercial resident exposed to considerable danger.
...The early struggle between the poligars of south and East India Company, although essentially a battle over tax collection, had a strong political dimension. The English treated the poligars, perceived as a rival power, as their inveterate enemies, allowing their hostility full expression in their accounts...
When in 1799 the poligars of Tirunelveli District rose in open rebellion, the East India Company took all possible measures to check the spread of the uprising. A detachment of Company troops was speedily deployed against the Tirunelveli poligars, while dire warnings were issued to poligars in other parts of the south not to join the rebellion. The Company, which regarded the poligars as the 'scourge of the country', determined to deprive the ringleaders of their palayats and punish them in an exemplary fashion.
Collector Jackson singled out Kattabomma Nayak of Panchalamkurichi as the main leader of the rebellion. That came to be known as the First Poligari War was declared on 5 September 1799. Although Kattabomman managed to escape from the field of battle, he was captured a month later in Pudukottai. After a summary trial, he was sentenced to death by Major Bannerman, Commander of the East India Company troops. He was publicly hanged near Kayattar Fort, close to the town of Tirunelveli, in front of fellow poligars who had been summoned to witness the execution.
Subramania Pillai, a close associate of Kattabomma Nayak, was also publicly hanged and his head was fixed on a pike at Panchalamkurichi. Soundra Pandian Nayak, another rebel leader, was brutally done to death by having his brains dashed against a village wall.Despite the exemplary repression of 1799, however, rebellion broke out again in 1800, this time in a more cohesive and united manner. Although the 1800-1801 rebellion was to be categorised in British records as the Second Poligari War, it assumed a much broader character than its predecessor. It was directed by a confederacy consisting of Marudu Pandian of Sivaganga, Gopala Nayak of Dindugal, Kerala Verma of Malabar and Krishnappa Nayak and Dhoondaji of Mysore. The insurrection, which broke out in Coimbatore in June 1800, soon spread to Ramanathapuram and Madurai. By May 1801, it had reached the northern provinces, where Marudu Pandian, Melappan and Puttur provided the leadership. Oomathurai, the brother of Kattabomma Nayak, emerged as a key leader. In February 1801, Oomathurai and two hundred men by a clever stratagem took control of Panchalamkuriclli Fort, in which Oomathurai's relatives were imprisoned.
Its fort now re-occupied and reconstructed by rebel forces Panchalamkurichi became the nerve centre of the uprising. British dismay was boundless. As one eyewitness put it,
' . . . to our utter astonishment, we discovered that the walls, which had been entirely levelled, were now rebuilt, and fully manned by about fifteen hundred poligars.'
Three thousand armed men of Madurai and Ramanathapuram, despatched by Marudu Pandian, joined up with the Panchalamkurichi forces. However, British military superiority having just destroyed the far more formidable challenge posed by Tipu Sultan in Mysore, quickly asserted itself. The poligar forces based at Panchalamkurichi were crushed and, by the orders of the colonial government, the site of the captured fort was ploughed up and sowed with castor oil and salt so that it should never again be inhabited.
The colonial forces quickly overpowered the remaining insurgents. The Marudu brothers and their sons were put to death, while Oomathurai and Sevatiah were beheaded at Panchalamkurichi on 16 November, 1801. Seventy-three of the principal rebels were sentenced to perpetual banishment. So savage and extensive was the death and destruction wrought by the English that the entire region was left in a state of terror.
The suppression of the poligar rebellions of 1799 and 1800-1801 resulted in the liquidation of the influence of the chieftains. Under the terms of the Carnatic Treaty (31 July, 1801), the British assumed direct control over Tamil Nadu. The poligari system, which had flourished for two and a half centuries, came to a violent end and the Company introduced a zamindari settlement in its place.
While it is obviously premature and misleading to attach the term 'nationalist' to the struggle of the poligars, or to portray it as some kind of mass movement, the uprising does appear to have attracted some popular support. In subsequent years, a good deal of legend and folklore would develop around Kattabomman and the Marudu brothers. Long after Kattabomman's execution, Kayattar, his place of death, remained a place of political pilgrimage. In his Tinnevelly Gazetteer of 1917, H. R. Pate notes the presence in Kayattar of 'a great pile of stones of all sizes, which represents the accumulated offerings by wayfarers of the past hundred years'. Folk songs recalling the heroism of the poligar leaders remain alive in Tamil Nadu to this day..."

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Tirumalai Nayakkar History

Thirumalai Nayakar ruled Madurai between 1623 to 1659 CE. He was the most notable of the thirteen Madurai Nayak rulers in the 17th century. His contributions are found in the many splendid buildings and temples of Madurai. His kingdom was under constant threat from the armies of Delhi Sultanate and the other neighbouring Muslim kingdoms, which he managed to repulse successfully. His territories comprised much of the old Pandya territories which included Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Madurai districts, Aragalur in southern Tamil Nadu and some territories of territories of the Travancore kingdom.[citation needed]
Thirumalai Nayak was a great patron of art and architecture and the Dravidian Koil architecture evolved into the Madurai style. He rebuilt and renovated a number of old temples of the Pandya period. His palace known as the Thirumalai Nayak Palace is a notable an architectural masterpiece.

Early years
Thirumalai Nayak succeeded Muttu Virappa Nayak on the Madurai throne in 1623 CE. The political situation in south Tamil Nadu was confused with the decline of the Vijayanagar empire, and the once feudatory Nayak governors of Madurai, Thanjavur, Gingee and Mysore were quarrelling to divide the dissolving Vijayanagara Empire. The Muslim kingdoms in the Deccan began to press southwards. Immediately after becoming king, Thirumalainayak withheld the payment of tributes to the Vijayanargara kings. He also gathered a large army in Thiruchirapalli and strengthened its fortifications.
Thirumalai's wars
Invasion by the Bijapur army
Around 1638, the Vijayanagara king Ranga, succeeded to the throne of Chandragiri and he soon resolved to put an end to the independence of Thirumalai and prepared to march southwards. Thirumalai had meanwhile persuaded the Vijayanagar governors of Tanjore and Gingee (in south Arcot) to join him in his defiance of their mutual suzerain, and thus Ranga was left with only Mysore, of all his feudatories, to support him. The Nayak governor of Thanjavur eventually left his allies, sent in his submission, and betrayed the other Nayakscitation needed.
Ranga advanced upon Gingee Fort and laid siege to it. Thirumalai requested the Bijapur Sultan to send assistance. However the Bijapur toops defeated the Vijayanaraga army and turned on the Nayak armies by attacking the Gingee fort themselves. Gingee soon fell to the Bijapur troops. Thirumalai retreated in dismay of Madurai, and the Bijapur army advanced southwards, defeated the Thanjavur Nayak, and proceeded to lay waste the Madurai country. Thirumalai then submitted, apparently without striking a blow, paid a large ransom to the invaders, and agreed to send an annual tribute to the Sultan of Bijapur.
Mysore wars
The Vijayanagar ruler had taken refuge with the king of Mysore, and now these two monarchs combined to endeavour to recover those portions of the Vijayanagara territories, which had recently been captured by Golconda. Thirumalai, making use of the opportunity to settle a long-standing quarrel with the kingdom of Mysore, persuaded the Sultans of Golconda and Bijapur to help him attack Mysore from the south. The Sultan of Golconda accepted and attacked Mysore and extinguished the Vijayanagara Empire and humbled the kingdom of Mysore. In return Thirumalai Nayak the Thanjavur Nayak and paid large amounts as tribute to the Golconda Sultan.
Thirumalai had another conflict with Mysore towards the end of his reign. The battles began with an invasion of Coimbatore by the Mysore king apparently in revenge for Thirumalai’s contribution to his defeat at the hands of the Golconda Sultanate. Coimbatore was occupied by the Mysore armies with ease, and Madurai itself was threatened. The Mysore troops were however repulsed from the town by the assistance of the Setupati of Ramnad. This campaign was known as the ‘hunt for noses’ because under the orders of the Mysore king, the invaders cut off the noses of all their prisoners and sent them in sacks to Seringapatam as trophies.

invasion of Mysore was undertaken shortly afterwards by Thirumalai under the command of Kumara Muttu Nayak, his younger brother, and was a success, in which the king of Mysore himself was captured and his nose was cut off and sent to Madurai.
Rebellions by feudatories
During Thirumalai's reign, two rebellions occurred amongst his feudatories. The first was by the Setupati of Ramnad. It was due to an order of Thirumalai in 1635 regarding the succession to the chief of that territory, which was resisted by the rightful claimant. Thirumalai was successful in placing his nominee on the throne and in imprisoning the rival aspirant, but he was ultimately compelled to allow the latter to succeed. He heir reciprocated this action by supporting Thirumalai in his final war with Mysore.
The other rebellion was caused by a confederacy of Poligars headed by the powerful chief of Ettaiyapuram in the Tirunelveli district. Its reason for this upraising is not clear. The Setupati of Ramnad, as chief of all the Poligars, quelled it. The leader of the rebels was put to death and the others punished.
Thirumalai’s capital was Madurai. The royal residence had been moved from there to Thiruchirapalli by his predecessor, but Thirumalai moved it back to Madurai again, notwithstanding the strategic importance of Thiruchirapallai, with its almost impregnable rock, its never failing Cauvery river and its healthy climate, was by nature far superior to Madurai, where the fort was on level ground, the Vaigai was usually dry and fever was almost endemic. The reason for this move is claimed to be due to a dream Thirumalai had.
Thirumalai is best remembered for the many splendid public buildings he built in Madurai. Despite so many upheavals, Thirumalai Nayak's reign is famous for the legacy he left behind in numerous constructions. He added a tower to the Meenakshi temple, the unfinished tower called the Raja Gopuram and added a hall. He is credited for excavating the huge artificial pond, or Teppakulam.
He also built the beautiful palace called Thirumalai Nayak Mahal

another occasion a son of an artist pestered him for a mango when that fruit was not in season. He would not take no for an answer. The Nayak ordered that gold mangoes be brought from the palace. The boy was content and allowed his father to continue the work undisturbed. From this incident the family came to be called the "Mampazham" family.
When, on yet another occasion, the artist was making a sculpture of a consort of the Nayak's a chip broke off from the thigh, as a curious coincidence the same queen had a scar in the same place as chipped. He started work on another image, but again the chip came off from the same place. A minister of the Nayak advised the artist to leave the image as it was. When the Nayak came to know of this from the artist, he was angry, wondering how the minister could know that his queen had a scar on her thigh. He sent for him. The minister knew that the Nayak was angry and might punish him. So he put out his eyes. At this the Nayak was filled with grief. Thereupon the minister composed a poem in the praise of the Goddess, beseeching her to give him back his eyesight if he was innocent. She restored it. The minister was a famous Sanskrit poet,named Sri.Nilakanta Diksihtar. Among his works are the "Shivalilamava", on the traditions of Lord Shiva in Madurai, and the "Gangavatarana", on the descent of the Ganga to the earth. After this incident the minister, took leave of the King and was endowed with a village called Palamadai(Neelakanta Samudram) east of The present Sankar nagar,in Tirunelveli. Sri.Nilakanta Diksihthar was the grand nephew of Appaya Diksihtar. This clan has a rich tradition of intellectuals.
Another anecdote tells us that Thirumalai first brought his queen to the Thirumalai Nayak palace after it was completed. She commented that the giant pillars and arches reminded her of a stable for elephants, sending the king into such a rage that he had her confined for the rest of her life. And he took another wife.
Traveller Chronicles
Baltsar Da Costa, a jesuit traveller chronicles in 1646 ‘Relacao Annual’ describing Thirumala Nayaka in more graphic still
“Almost every day he appears on the terrace surrounded by his courtiers, while in front of them his elephants are drawn up in two rows, the space between them being occupied by three or four hundred Turks (Turcos) who form his bodyguard. When he comes out of the fortress to visit some pagodes (Temple), as he is wonts to do on days of festivals, he is surrounded with great pomp. Sometimes he rides in a palanquin, at other times he mounts an enormous elephant…Next come the elephants in a long file, mounted by his nobles and chief captains, preceded by the arms and insignia(crest) of the Nāyaka.Then the cavalry and the rest of the troops follow".
His death
Thirumalai Naik died in 1659. He was between sixty-five and seventy years of age at the time and had reigned for thirty-six years. His territories at his death comprised the present districts of Madurai (including the territories of Ramnad and Sivaganga), Thirunelveli, Coimbatore, Salem and Thiruchirapalli, with Pudukkotai and parts of Travancore. Another story states that he had an intrigue with the wife of a priest and that as he was returning from visiting her one dark night he fell into a well and was killed. Thirumalai was succeeded by his son Muttu Alakadri Nayak in 1659. A letter written by one of the Jesuit priests just after his death states:It is impossible to refuse him credit for great qualities, but he tarnished his glory at the end of his life by follies and vices which nothing could justify. He was called to render account to God for the evils which his political treachery had brought upon his own people and the neighbouring kingdoms. His reign was rendered illustrious by works of really royal magnificence. Among these are the pagoda of Madura, several public buildings, and above all the royal palace the colossal proportions and astonishing boldness of which recall the ancient monuments of Thebes.
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Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal ("The Palace")
Posted in lord meenakshi, madurai, Nayak, nayak dynasty, thirumalai nayakkar palace, Thrumalai nayakkar
" Thirumalai nayakkar mahal" one of the beautiful palace in south India, "Thirumalai nayakkar" was built this marvelous palace. "Thirumalai nayakkar" succedded his brother and crowned in 1634 A.D. In that time "Trichy" was the capital for nayak dynasty, "Thirumalai nayakkar" shifted the capital to "Madurai" because he was a devotee of "Lord Meenakshi".In that time, there are no palace in "Madurai". The old pandiya's palaces were already destroyed by the succeeded rulers, so "Thirumalai nayakkar " built a palace and that very palace is the "Thirumalai nayakkar mahal". At first "Thirumalai nayakkar Mahal" was four times bigger than today, There is an auditorium, adobe for quenes("anthapuram") and houses for ministers in the palace. What we see today was "Kolu mandapam" which is a smaller part of the palace. Today's "pathu thoon" was an elephant shelter in the past, Today's "Panthadi theru" was a indoor play ground for royal women.In the British period, Thirumalai nayakkar mahal lost it's greatness and colonies built in the destroyed parts of the palace. In 1868 Madras Governor Mr. Napier saw the palace and decided to save the palace from destruction. He repaired the palace and that's what we have today.
"Thirumalai nayakkar palace" not just beautiful but it's architecture. The palace have many arches between the pillars but the ancient architects never used a wood or steel to built the palace instead they used only hot bricks and mixture of calcium powder with sugarcane juice("sunnambu,Karumbu saru ") . There are 248 pillars in the palace now, all the pillars 58 feet in height and 16 feet in orbit . We cannot see like these pillars anywhere in India.

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I am always talk with me that I am good always but not best.
I am Selfish ,Possesive,Talkative.Because till now I am doing work & earning for me.
Now I am 27 when I am going to acheive my Goal.Earlier I decided to become a cine star , Politician ,Manfeisto, Good Leader,IPS ,IAS.But what to do?.Fate is horsing our life.At last I am standing as an IT Engg.
I dont have a seperate Style.I am just following another one's style.Now I realized that we have to make an sperate style to acheive my goal.
But How?.Till now I didnt get any idea.I am ready to take steps to acheive.Someone is using my effort and my creativity.when I am going to implement for me?
When i am inventing new ideas & approaches in my company.It become very big hit and sucess .But my seniors ,Manager sucks all the credits.I cant stop this.
Life is full of thirsty.If you see a charmy girl.You want to love her.If any one have costliest car.Then you want to buy the same car.Like this we fell as same on all the things.I am also like this .But I dont want live like this.What kind of thirsty I have?Who will stop my thirsty?.
Now I am working in a company,But when I am going to own the company.Even I have Started a company.But that company was closed within a month.I got cheated.World is full of money minded,Cast minded,Religion Minded,Sex Minded,Drug Minded
The man who is not minded on any of this above can have answer for me.But I dont want that man be as an Monk or religion followers ,Monks are the worlds best "Lazy Fellow's"
Brave Comedies in INDIA :
Guys who have crowd near by him have full of brave in their heart.But when he is in single he will be calm when any one shout.So as per my concern we are like dogs,Pigs not like Lion.Even Loin would start to run when elephant comes to attack. Brave comes only from his birth,grownup.People with their crowd can beat a single one.
Let see how brave become comedy in INDIA :
Political Leaders , Cast Leaders comparing them as lion ,Elephant ,Cheetah and ask follower(Innocent people) to Stick lion near by their photos in the posters , Wall Papers.
Earlier in ancient period the kings were brave.Chatrapathi Sivaji , Maruthu Pandiyar,PuliThevan,Veera Pandiya Kattabomman,Pandiyan.They knew all kind of war arts.Even they do all kind of politics but they were very brave to save their people.So they have been compared as Lion.But now a days big comedy is going on.Politicians compare themselves as a Lion.

Which is my Country ?.INDIA.Hindustan becomes INDIA by politicians ,Hindus fight with muslims.Muslims fight with hindus.Hindus fight with christians.Uppercast fights with lower cast people.Lowercast people fight with upper cast people.Does any one feel peacful to live in INDIA ?.NO Why?
These politicians divided hindustan and made pakistan & India and ordered hindus to get out from pakistan.But Muslims not need to get out from INDIA.Ya I accept Muslims also partticipated in freedom fight.If they are dividing the country there should be an equal share.But they didnt do it.Even they didnt think about the future.Result my contry becomes full of religion clash, Bomb blasts because of politicians.But British dont want muslims & hindus want to be in peace line.They ruled our country with these politics.Hindustan is a country full of hindus once upon a time.But later Muslims ruled hindustan & developed their population with the help of hindu womans.After then British started to occupy.Then muslims joined with hindus to fought against british government.British sponserd christianity in INDIA.So flag becomes common for all religion.Orange for hindus,White for christians,Green for Muslims.

Cowards making Bomb Blast successfully in my country every day.Government cant stop it.I cant able to stop it.Most of the Indian Polticians have black Money.I am working more than 12hrs per day and earning just 40000 per month.Lot of People in City Corner earn only 1000 per month.But these politician income goes more than 1 crore per month.My qualification is B-Tech .His qualification is not even secondary school .Most of the cinema Star's who didnt even apply for studies earn 10 crores per month.Why I cant earn this money.What is the difference?.Who's making this difference.They are all running the horses using uneducated & innocent people.
These people will make money until they are educated.
We can leave cinema stars.But I need to tell about Politicians.Who are they?.Why they are telling we are for people?.What is their work?Listed below
* Earn Money

* Make people stupid

* In the name of Real Estate business occupying lands.If the Land Lord approaching police station.Soon Rowdyswill kidnap that landlord with the help of police.Atlast that land will be sold with cheap rate.

* Encouraging Community apparels & Religion Apparels.

* Using rowdy's to win in the election* Working for their leader who is one of the waste candidate.

* Roaming city in costliest car with party flag.(Threatening People I am with this party be careful)

* Using well educated IAS ,IPS for their own purpose.

* Rapping womens.

* Killing innocent people by bomblast in the name of Terrorists.Will these cowards stand in the border with Miltery to fight against our enemies.Will they drive their costly car with party flag inthe Border to protest our country.

Puli Prabhakaran fights against singalese for Tamil ,In Tamilnadu Politicians fight for Lokshaba Seats(Shits).What kind of world it is? I am asking.On Lokshaba election-2009 SarathBabu MBA stood in Southchennai.He got only 4000 Votes.At the sametime a politician who has not even finished 9th standarddone murders(murdered same party senior leader) wining and elect as MP with difference of 1 Lakh vote difference.
But Prabhakaran fighting against enemies to get tamileelam. In Tamilnadu he is a terrorist quarrel's by shit eaters.Politcian who has done murders is electing as a MP(Member of Parliment) in Lokshabha Election.
Traffic police Stops Lorry & getting money infront of the public.Small Eg :Police Man standing idle when the student got beaten up infront of them due to cast clash in the college.Police did nt take single step to recover or stop that violence
To become a IPS offcier ,Man spend whole nights to study & writing exams.After a lot of Interveiw he is becoming an IPS ,IAS.After becoming an IAS Officer .He is doing works in favour of that minster who didnt even passed secondary school.

When this world going to identify me?.
I just need some money to acheive .
If I cant achive anything till my 40th.Then I am shamless .I ll end my life.
Whats this life ?. Man living for him.Who has started this usless theme?
As a humanbeing you have to live for others.If you are not living for others then you are an animal.

A Stupid Comman ManPublic